Dr. Jeffrey Rappaport is an active member of the American and New York State Dental Associations. As founder of the LAVAAN Dental Spa in NYC, Dr. Rappaport’s focus is on helping patients achieve pearly white perfection. Dr. Rappaport and his dental spa have been featured in The New York Times, ELLE, Glamour, and The Wall Street Journal. Q: What causes teeth staining? A: Extrinsic staining (stains on the surfaces of the teeth) is caused by intensely colored foods and beverages (What about smoking?). The three things that affect the staining potential of a food or beverage are: (1) chromogens, which are highly pigmented molecules that make up the color of a food or beverage and latch on to dental enamel; (2) acid level, which causes staining by eating away at tooth enamel, making teeth softer and allowing chromogens to latch on; and (3) tannins, which further boost the chromogens ability to attach to enamel. Extrinsic teeth staining is often yellow-brown or dark brown in color. Q: Why does red wine cause teeth staining? What about white wine? A: Red wine has intense color (chromogens), it’s acidic, which makes the teeth more likely to accept pigment, and has tannins that bind to the teeth and hold the chromogens. White wine can also stain the teeth as even though the color isn’t intense, the acid and tannins make teeth more likely to pick up the color of whatever else you’re eating or drinking at the same time. Q: What active ingredients are found in Pearly Wipes & Wine Wipes. Why are they effective at preventing and fighting teeth staining? A: Wine Wipes and Pearly Wipes contain baking soda to effectively remove surface stains and neutralize acid that can corrode enamel, calcium to help strengthen the teeth and rebuild damaged enamel and glycerin to prevent further staining by invisibly coating the teeth. Salt, a natural cleanser and antiseptic, is added to the formula to remove stains and fight germs, as well as hydrogen peroxide to gently whiten the teeth and kill bacteria. Pearly Wipes include peppermint oil to freshen breath, clean the mouth and keep teeth and gums germ-free. Wine Wipes do not contain peppermint oil, which would interfere with wine tasting, but instead are infused with orange blossom, a flavorless antibacterial palate cleanser and antiseptic. Q: How do you use Pearly Wipes and Wine Wipes? A: Pearly Wipes can be used midday or after a meal to freshen breath, clean the mouth, and brighten teeth. Use Wine Wipes on the teeth and around the mouth before your first sip of wine and during/after tasting as needed to refresh the palate and remove the red stain on your teeth and mouth.